20131118 Dorothy promoted peace 杜洛菲宣揚和平

Dorothy Day (1897-1980), the foundress of the Catholic Worker movement, was born in Brooklyn and was baptized at an Episcopal church in Chicago. In 1916 she settled in New York and worked for Socialist publications. In 1949 Dorothy described herself as an “ex-Communist.”

Road to Catholicism
As a young journalist in New York, Dorothy would sometimes visit a Catholic church at night. The Catholic climate of worship and spiritual discipline appealed to her. She saw the Catholic Church as “the church of the immigrants, the church of the poor.”
In 1922 Dorothy worked as a reporter in Chicago. She lived with three young women who went to Mass every Sunday and prayed each day. Dorothy was convinced that “worship, adoration, thanksgiving, supplication were the noblest acts of which we are capable in this life.”
In 1924 Dorothy bought a property in the New York borough of Staten Island. She started to live common law with Forster Batterham, who was anti-religion and anti-marriage. Dorothy’s growing interest in Catholicism often led to quarrels.
Unexpectedly, Dorothy discovered that she was pregnant. Despite the opposition of Forster, Dorothy kept the child and had her baptized in a Catholic church. After breaking up with Forster, Dorothy herself was received into the Catholic Church on Dec. 28, 1926.

Catholic Worker movement
On Dec. 9, 1932, Dorothy met Peter Maurin, who encouraged her to start a newspaper to “bring the best of Catholic thought to the man in the street in the language of the man in the street.”
In May 1933 the first issue of The Catholic Worker was printed. By December, 100,000 copies were being printed each month. The paper didn’t merely complain but called on its readers to make personal responses.
In his essays, Peter opposed the idea that Christians should take care only of their friends and leave the care of strangers to impersonal charitable agencies. Every home should have its “Christ Room” and every parish a house of hospitality ready to receive the “ambassadors of God.”
Eventually the editors of the paper started to welcome poor and homeless strangers, and by 1936 there were 33 Catholic Worker houses spread across the U.S.
A social worker asked Dorothy how long her “clients” were permitted to stay. Dorothy answered, “We let them stay forever.”
She explained, “They live with us, they die with us, and we give them a Christian burial. We pray for them after they are dead. Once they are taken in, they become members of the family, or rather they always were members of the family. They are our brothers and sisters in Christ.”
Pacifism: opposition to war and violence, was Dorothy’s position. She urged friends and associates of the Catholic Worker movement “to the caring for the sick and the wounded, to the growing of food for the hungry, to the continuance of all our works of mercy in our houses and on our farms.”
The Catholic Worker movement supported works of mercy, but not works of war.
In 1965 Dorothy went to Rome to take part in a fast, praying that the Second Vatican Council would issue a clear statement against war and violence. In December, the Constitution on the Church in the Modern World was approved by the bishops.
The council described as “a crime against God and humanity” any act of war “directed to the indiscriminate destruction of whole cities or vast areas with their inhabitants.” The council called on states to make legal provision for conscientious objectors while describing as “criminal” those who obey commands which condemn the innocent and defenceless.
Dorothy died on Nov. 29, 1980. Cardinal John O’Connor of New York launched the canonization process in 1997, the 100th anniversary of Dorothy’s birth.

杜洛菲.戴爾 (1897-1980) 是「公教勞工運動」的創始者,美國布魯克林區出生,在芝加哥接受過基督教洗禮;1916年居於紐約,曾在多間出版社工作。

 

步入聖教之途

 

當她還是紐約的年輕新聞從業員時,杜洛菲有時在晚上,會到天主教的聖堂,而天主教禮儀的氣氛和神修苦行,打動她的內心;她把天主教看做「移民的教會」、「貧窮人的教會」。

 

1922年,杜洛菲到芝加哥任職記者,與三位年紀相若的女子同住,這些女子參與主日彌撒,並每天祈禱。杜洛菲確信「欽崇、敬拜、感恩及祈求,是今生能做最高尚的事。」

 

1924年,杜洛菲在紐約史泰登島上購買了物業,和霍斯特.伯達坎先生同居,但因霍斯特抗拒宗教、反對婚姻,和杜洛菲對天主教漸濃的熱情,背道而馳,致令兩人經常吵鬧。後來杜洛菲意外懷孕,她不顧霍斯特墮胎的主張,堅持繼續懷孕,並安排女嬰按受天主教洗禮。不久以後,杜洛菲和霍斯特關係破裂。杜洛菲於1926年12月28日正式皈依天主教。

 

天主教勞工運動

 

1932年12月9日,杜洛菲認識伯多祿.莫烈先生,他積極鼓勵她創辦報刊:「以街頭語調,給街頭的人灌輸最好的公教思維。」1933年5月,「天主教勞工報」創刊,同年12月,每月刊印達到十萬份。杜洛菲的報刊並不單純指責社會的不公,亦呼籲讀者作出回應。

 

在其撰文中,伯多祿反對基督徒只善待親朋戚友,讓有需要的陌生人跑到福利機構求助。他認為,每一個家都應該設有「基督房間」,每個堂區都應留有住處,隨時接待「天主的使節」。最後,報刊的工作人員組織起來,開始接待貧苦及無家可歸的陌生人;到了1936年,他們已在美國設辦了三十三間天主教勞工借宿處。

 

一名社工問杜洛菲,借宿的人可停留多久,她答:「我們讓他們永遠留下。」她補充說:「他們與我們同住,他們與我們同死,我們給他們行聖教的殮葬。他們死後,我們為他們祈禱。他們打從第一天踏進來,我們便視他們為家人,甚至他們經常都是我們的家人。可不是嗎?他們就是我們基督內的兄弟姊妹!」

 

杜洛菲是「和平主義」的一員,反對暴力、反對戰爭;她促使「天主教勞工運動」的朋友和夥伴們,「照顧傷患生病的人,為賙濟而務農耕種,在我們的家中及農莊,繼續共襄善舉」。「天主教勞工運動」支援慈濟,反對戰爭。

 

1965年,杜洛菲到羅馬參加齋戒,祈求梵蒂崗第二次大公會議,會發表反戰及反暴力宣言。12月,主教們通過「現代教會憲章」,指出:「任何戰爭行為, 毫不辨別地消滅整個都市或廣闊地區及其居民,是反對天主及人類的罪行,應堅決而不猶豫地加以譴責」。大公會議又促請各國,制定法律來保障反戰者的良心。大公會議指出:盲目地服從不義的命令去壓害無辜及無助者是罪犯的行為。

 

1980年11月29日,杜洛菲逝世。1997年、杜洛菲.戴爾百歲冥壽之年,紐約總主教、若望.奧干諾樞機,展開對她宣聖的程序。

 

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