20130429 Congregations founded 修會團體的成立

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Church experienced both political and philosophical opposition. During the troublesome years of this period, new religious orders were founded. St. John Baptiste de La Salle (1651-1719) founded the Brothers of the Christian Schools, and St. Alphonsus Liguori (1696-1787) founded the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer.
John Baptist de la Salle
 John Baptist de la Salle was born at Rheims on April 30, 1651. As a young priest, he helped train teachers in the local charity schools. To identify with the men he was training, de la Salle gave away his fortune and lived in poverty.
 De la Salle introduced the simultaneous classroom method in place of individual instruction. He organized the Brothers of the Christian Schools—–a body of trained teachers who dedicated themselves by religious vows to teaching gratis and for life. The bothers not only gave students intellectual formation, but moral and spiritual formation as well.
 At first, de la Salle intended to have priests in his new congregation. He designed the gifted and capable Brother L’Heureux as his successor and was about to present Bother L’Heureux for ordination. However, Brother L’Heureux died suddenly, and de la Salle started to doubt whether his plan was according to the will of God. After much prayer, de la Salle laid down the rule that no brother should ever become priest nor should any priest be accepted into the congregation. The congregation was to confine itself strictly to the work of teaching.
 There were numerous difficulties to overcome for the establishment of the new congregation: the defections of members, the opposition of teachers who took fees, false accusation against de la Salle as too severe towards novices, and a series of law-suits. However, with trust in God and deep humility, de la Salle led the congregation through the storms and their educational works flourished. 
 In 1717, de la Salle resigned as superior, and lived as a humble brother. To combat Jansenism, he promoted frequent and even daily Communion. He died on Good Friday, 1719. In 1950, Pope Pius XII declared de la Salle as patron of all school teachers.
Alphonsus Liguori 
 Alphonsus Liguori was born near Naples in 1696, and was ordained a priest in 1726.
 As a priest, Liguori preached missions throughout the kingdom of Naples with great success. Later he would instruct missioners: “Your style must be simple, but the sermon must be well constructed. If skill be lacking, it is unconnected and tasteless; if it be bombastic, the simple cannot understand it. I have never preached a sermon which the poorest old woman in the congregation could not understand.”
 Liguori founded the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (the Redemptorists) for the preaching of missions. He was also well known as a spiritual writer and a moral theologian.
 Liguori took a vow not to waste a moment of time. He used his spare time to write devotional books such as The Glories of Mary, Visits to the Blessed Sacrament, and The Way of the Cross. 
 Opposing the rigorism of Jansenists, Liguori stressed the mercy of God and the help of Mary. He also promoted frequent Communion.
 Liguori wrote the Moral Theology to prepare young missioners to hear confessions. Today, he is the patron saint for confessors and moralists.
At sixty-six, Liguori became bishop. He invited missioners to preach in his diocese. He recommended two things to the missioners: simplicity in the pulpit and charity in the confessional.  
In his old age, Liguori suffered from infirmity. The difficulties faced by his new congregation and spiritual dryness also caused great sufferings for the elderly Liguori. He bore his sufferings patiently and died peacefully in 1787. 

十七及十八世紀,聖教會的哲理和在政治上,遭到挑戰。在這期間,聖若翰. 喇沙(1651-1719)創立了「基督學校修士會」,聖師亞豐索(1696-1787) 創立了「贖世主會」。
聖若翰. 喇沙

1651年四月三十日,若翰.喇沙出生於法國理姆斯城。1678年晉鐸後,獻身於教育事業,培訓當地慈善學校的教師。為了專心從事是項工作起見,若翰把自己的家產變賣,渡清貧生活。

若翰.喇沙以課室集體學習方法,取代當時的個別授課方式,受到社會廣泛注意。不久,他創立了「基督學校修士會」,要求會士們終生為教學作無償獻身,不獨在學術上教授學生,也在學生的德育靈修上,作出培育。

喇沙曾有意在其修會內培育司鐸聖職會士,負責管理修院。才德雙全的雷萊修士,是喇沙指定為繼承人,且要培育他成為神父,誰知他突患急病身故,令喇沙感到非常懊喪。經過不斷的祈禱,喇沙終認定天主不願其會士成為司鐸,只專注教學,遂頒令「基督學校修士會」會士,不要攻讀鐸品,亦不接納聖職人員為會士。

修會成立之初,面對不少波折,包括有多人的退會,遭到收取學費老師的反對;而喇沙本人亦被誣告,管理初學修士太嚴厲等;還是喇沙的謙遜和對天主的信德,一切風潮最後歸於平息,會務及教育工作,得以順利展開。

1717年,若翰.喇沙因年邁而辭去會長一職,以最卑微的會士自居。為了對抗「楊森學派」謬論,喇沙提倡勤每天恭領聖體。1719年的「苦難日」,若翰.喇沙病逝。1950年,教宗庇約十二世,欽定聖若翰.喇沙為諸學校教師的主保。
聖亞豐索

 1696年亞豐索出生於意大利的那畢勒斯,1726年晉鐸,他的講道深受歡迎,啟發人心。日後,亞豐索對他的弟子說:「你們講道前必須有充分的準備,但措詞要簡單通俗。假如缺乏充足的準備,潦草塞責,一定前後矛盾,枯燥平淡,不能打動聽者的心靈。但是若用字過於深奧,一般聽眾就不易瞭解。我的講道用詞,通俗淺顯,婦孺都易通曉。」
 
亞豐索強調天主的慈愛與及聖母的助祐,以駁斥「楊森學派」謬論,且極力主張勤領聖體。

 亞豐索創立「贖世主會」,專為傳教講道。他發愿不浪費光陰,閒時寫箸有關敬禮的書籍。「瑪利亞的光榮」、「朝拜聖體」和「十字架苦路」都出於亞豐索的手筆。他同時是一位靈修寫作家、倫理神學家。「倫理神學」一書,是他特別為年青聖職人員聽告解而寫的指導。普世教會奉聖亞豐索為告解神師及倫理神學家的主保。

年六十六,亞豐索晉牧;他邀請司鐸,到他的牧區講道,訓誨他們,說:「在講道台上的說話應當簡單,在告解亭內的態度應當仁愛。」

亞豐索年老多病,內修受神枯考驗,外在面對所創修會的分裂,但他含忍耐心,一心承行天主的旨意。聖亞豐索1787年安然而逝。

 

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