Monthly Archives: April 2013

20130429 Congregations founded 修會團體的成立

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Church experienced both political and philosophical opposition. During the troublesome years of this period, new religious orders were founded. St. John Baptiste de La Salle (1651-1719) founded the Brothers of the Christian Schools, and St. Alphonsus Liguori (1696-1787) founded the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer.
John Baptist de la Salle
 John Baptist de la Salle was born at Rheims on April 30, 1651. As a young priest, he helped train teachers in the local charity schools. To identify with the men he was training, de la Salle gave away his fortune and lived in poverty.
 De la Salle introduced the simultaneous classroom method in place of individual instruction. He organized the Brothers of the Christian Schools—–a body of trained teachers who dedicated themselves by religious vows to teaching gratis and for life. The bothers not only gave students intellectual formation, but moral and spiritual formation as well.
 At first, de la Salle intended to have priests in his new congregation. He designed the gifted and capable Brother L’Heureux as his successor and was about to present Bother L’Heureux for ordination. However, Brother L’Heureux died suddenly, and de la Salle started to doubt whether his plan was according to the will of God. After much prayer, de la Salle laid down the rule that no brother should ever become priest nor should any priest be accepted into the congregation. The congregation was to confine itself strictly to the work of teaching.
 There were numerous difficulties to overcome for the establishment of the new congregation: the defections of members, the opposition of teachers who took fees, false accusation against de la Salle as too severe towards novices, and a series of law-suits. However, with trust in God and deep humility, de la Salle led the congregation through the storms and their educational works flourished. 
 In 1717, de la Salle resigned as superior, and lived as a humble brother. To combat Jansenism, he promoted frequent and even daily Communion. He died on Good Friday, 1719. In 1950, Pope Pius XII declared de la Salle as patron of all school teachers.
Alphonsus Liguori 
 Alphonsus Liguori was born near Naples in 1696, and was ordained a priest in 1726.
 As a priest, Liguori preached missions throughout the kingdom of Naples with great success. Later he would instruct missioners: “Your style must be simple, but the sermon must be well constructed. If skill be lacking, it is unconnected and tasteless; if it be bombastic, the simple cannot understand it. I have never preached a sermon which the poorest old woman in the congregation could not understand.”
 Liguori founded the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (the Redemptorists) for the preaching of missions. He was also well known as a spiritual writer and a moral theologian.
 Liguori took a vow not to waste a moment of time. He used his spare time to write devotional books such as The Glories of Mary, Visits to the Blessed Sacrament, and The Way of the Cross. 
 Opposing the rigorism of Jansenists, Liguori stressed the mercy of God and the help of Mary. He also promoted frequent Communion.
 Liguori wrote the Moral Theology to prepare young missioners to hear confessions. Today, he is the patron saint for confessors and moralists.
At sixty-six, Liguori became bishop. He invited missioners to preach in his diocese. He recommended two things to the missioners: simplicity in the pulpit and charity in the confessional.  
In his old age, Liguori suffered from infirmity. The difficulties faced by his new congregation and spiritual dryness also caused great sufferings for the elderly Liguori. He bore his sufferings patiently and died peacefully in 1787. 

十七及十八世紀,聖教會的哲理和在政治上,遭到挑戰。在這期間,聖若翰. 喇沙(1651-1719)創立了「基督學校修士會」,聖師亞豐索(1696-1787) 創立了「贖世主會」。
聖若翰. 喇沙

1651年四月三十日,若翰.喇沙出生於法國理姆斯城。1678年晉鐸後,獻身於教育事業,培訓當地慈善學校的教師。為了專心從事是項工作起見,若翰把自己的家產變賣,渡清貧生活。

若翰.喇沙以課室集體學習方法,取代當時的個別授課方式,受到社會廣泛注意。不久,他創立了「基督學校修士會」,要求會士們終生為教學作無償獻身,不獨在學術上教授學生,也在學生的德育靈修上,作出培育。

喇沙曾有意在其修會內培育司鐸聖職會士,負責管理修院。才德雙全的雷萊修士,是喇沙指定為繼承人,且要培育他成為神父,誰知他突患急病身故,令喇沙感到非常懊喪。經過不斷的祈禱,喇沙終認定天主不願其會士成為司鐸,只專注教學,遂頒令「基督學校修士會」會士,不要攻讀鐸品,亦不接納聖職人員為會士。

修會成立之初,面對不少波折,包括有多人的退會,遭到收取學費老師的反對;而喇沙本人亦被誣告,管理初學修士太嚴厲等;還是喇沙的謙遜和對天主的信德,一切風潮最後歸於平息,會務及教育工作,得以順利展開。

1717年,若翰.喇沙因年邁而辭去會長一職,以最卑微的會士自居。為了對抗「楊森學派」謬論,喇沙提倡勤每天恭領聖體。1719年的「苦難日」,若翰.喇沙病逝。1950年,教宗庇約十二世,欽定聖若翰.喇沙為諸學校教師的主保。
聖亞豐索

 1696年亞豐索出生於意大利的那畢勒斯,1726年晉鐸,他的講道深受歡迎,啟發人心。日後,亞豐索對他的弟子說:「你們講道前必須有充分的準備,但措詞要簡單通俗。假如缺乏充足的準備,潦草塞責,一定前後矛盾,枯燥平淡,不能打動聽者的心靈。但是若用字過於深奧,一般聽眾就不易瞭解。我的講道用詞,通俗淺顯,婦孺都易通曉。」
 
亞豐索強調天主的慈愛與及聖母的助祐,以駁斥「楊森學派」謬論,且極力主張勤領聖體。

 亞豐索創立「贖世主會」,專為傳教講道。他發愿不浪費光陰,閒時寫箸有關敬禮的書籍。「瑪利亞的光榮」、「朝拜聖體」和「十字架苦路」都出於亞豐索的手筆。他同時是一位靈修寫作家、倫理神學家。「倫理神學」一書,是他特別為年青聖職人員聽告解而寫的指導。普世教會奉聖亞豐索為告解神師及倫理神學家的主保。

年六十六,亞豐索晉牧;他邀請司鐸,到他的牧區講道,訓誨他們,說:「在講道台上的說話應當簡單,在告解亭內的態度應當仁愛。」

亞豐索年老多病,內修受神枯考驗,外在面對所創修會的分裂,但他含忍耐心,一心承行天主的旨意。聖亞豐索1787年安然而逝。

 

20130422 Missioners preached on Mary 宣講聖母

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, there were two saintly priests in France who preached missions, promoted devotion to Our Lady, and founded religious congregations. These two priests were St. John Eudes (1601-1680) and St. Louis Marie de Montfort (1673-1716).
John Eudes
John Eudes joined the Congregation of the Oratory of France at the age of twenty-two. He preached popular missions with great success, and labored tirelessly both at the pulpit and in the confessional. He said, “The preacher beats the bushes but the confessors catch the birds”.  John Eudes preached one hundred and ten missions in his lifetime.
The preaching of John Eudes helped wayward girls to detest their sins. Eventually, he founded the Sisters of Our Lady of Charity to provide a home for these girls.
During the course of his missions, John Eudes learnt that the clergy were in great need of reform. He founded the Congregation of Jesus and Mary for the formation of clergy. John Eudes founded seminaries in Lisieux, Rouen, Evreux, and Rennes.
For almost thirty years before the private revelations of St. Margaret Mary, John Eudes had been promoting devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. He wrote the book, The Devotion to the Adorable Heart of Jesus. He introduced the Feasts of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Holy Heart of Mary. Pope Leo XIII called John Eudes “the author of the liturgical cult of the Holy Hearts of Jesus and Mary.”
For the Sisters of Our Lady of Charity, John Eudes instituted the first liturgical feast of the Most Pure Heart of Mary, which was celebrated on February 8th of each year. During the last years of his life, John Eudes wrote the book, The Admirable Heart of the Most Holy Mother of God.
John Eudes also founded the Society of the Heart of the Mother Most Admirable for women living in the world who practiced chastity.  He proposed the Immaculate Heart of Mary as the model of all the virtues.
John Eudes died on August 19, 1680, and was canonized in 1925.
Louis de Montfort
Louis Marie de Montfort took a vow to live only on alms at nineteen. He practiced such extreme poverty that even beggars would offer handouts to him.
After his ordination in 1700, Louis served as hospital chaplain. He organized from among the female staff and residents the nucleus of the Congregation of Daughters of the Divine Wisdom.
After resigning from his position as hospital chaplain, Louis began to preach missions to the poor. He travelled on foot to Rome and obtained from Pope Clement XI the title of “missionary apostolic” with the authority to preach from place to place.
The popular missions of Louis brought about true and lasting spiritual revival in many places. Louis ardently promoted the devotion of the holy rosary, and established numerous confraternities for its recitation. He is also a tertiary of the order of St. Dominic.
A few years before his death in 1716, Louis founded an association of missionary priests—-the Company of Mary.
The writings of Louis influenced several popes and the Legion of Mary. His well known works are: True Devotion to Mary, The Secret of Mary, and The Secret of the Rosary.
In his writings, Louis encouraged the faithful to consecrate oneself to Jesus through Mary. We entrust to Mary our soul, body, spiritual possessions, and material possessions.
The teachings of St. John Eudes and St. Louis Marie de Montfort helped to combat the heresies of the time. To oppose the proud austerity of Jensenism, they promoted the tender love of Jesus and Mary. And to oppose the indifferent attitude of Quietism, they fostered authentic spirituality.

十七及十八世紀,聖若望.歐德(1601-1680)和聖類斯.蒙福(1673-1716) 兩位法國神父,宣講天國之道時,亦不忘推崇對聖母的敬禮,亦創辦了修會。

聖若望.歐德

年二十二,若望.歐德入經堂修會,竭力講道和聽告解,聲譽鵲起。他嘗言:「講道有如拍打叢林,告解有如捕捉驚鳥。」統計若望一生,作大規模公開講道一百一十次。

若望的講道,感染了不少失足的婦女,回頭改過;他後來創設了「仁愛聖母女修會」,專為收容照顧她們。

來往各地講道,若望深感聖職人員自強不息改革的需要,遂成立「耶穌聖母男修會」。他分別在呂銳、路洪、愛佛利和萊納建立了培植司鐸的修院。

早在聖瑪加利大得私人啟示前三十年,若望.歐德已倡導敬禮耶穌聖心,曾編寫「敬禮耶穌可敬之心」一書,建議確立恭敬耶穌及聖母聖心的瞻禮日。教宗良十三世稱若望.歐德是「禮敬耶穌及聖母聖心禮儀的編訂者」。

在他創設的「仁愛聖母女修會」內,若望定立每年二月八日,專務恭敬聖母至潔之心,是為有關敬禮之創舉。若望暮年潛心編撰「天主至聖之母聖心」,這本書在他去世前一個月方才脫稿。

若望亦為在俗婦女建立「至聖之母聖心會」,鼓勵祂們恪守潔德,並以聖母無玷聖心為諸德之典範。

1680年八月十九日,若望.歐德安逝主懷。1925年榮列聖品。

聖類斯.蒙福

十九歲時,類斯.蒙福已矢志渡行哀矜的生活。他極端神貧的生活模式,連叫化子也與他看齊。

1700年晉鐸後,類斯擔任醫院院牧,成立「上智之座會」,號召女護士和女病人參加。離任院牧後,類斯開始向貧苦大眾講道。他徒步走到羅馬,得教宗克勉十一世冠以「使徒傳教士」稱號,得准到各地傳教講道。

類斯的傳道,使很多地方的教友熱心起來。他是道明會第三會會友,頻頻推動恭敬聖母,勤唸玫瑰經,創立許多唸玫瑰經的善會。

類斯.蒙福在1716年逝世,離世前數載,他成立了傳教神父「瑪利亞修會」。

類斯.蒙福的箸作有「孝愛真諦」、「聖母之隱衷」和「玫瑰經的奧秘」,均影響了數任教宗和「聖母軍」組織。寫作文字間,他鼓勵信眾藉聖母奉獻自己給耶穌,並把自己一切——-靈魂、肉身、善功、財物——-完全付託給聖母。

聖若望.歐德和聖類斯.蒙福的宣講,都能針對當時異端的謬誤:以耶穌和聖母的慈愛,駁斥刻勞刻薄的「贊息主義」;以真誠的熱心靈修,譴責「寂靜主義」妄行的消極思想。

20130415 Sacred Heart loves mankind 聖心愛世人

The seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries were difficult and tumultuous times for the Church in Europe. Prideful leaders announced that faith would not govern them but only reason. Freethinkers refused to accept any authority in intellectual matters.
Within the Church there were the heresies of Jansenism and Quietism in France. According to Jansenism, Christ did not die for all people, and most of the people were predestined to damnation. Only a small number of people were granted salvific grace, and only the “just” or predestined should receive Holy Communion. Jansenism was condemned by Pope Innocent X in 1653. God wills all to be saved and gives sufficient grace to all. Holy Communion cleanses the soul from venial sin and strengths it against mortal sin.
Quietism advocated total passivity in spiritual life. According to Quietism, a person only need to immerse oneself in God, and should be indifferent to everything, including temptation. Pope Blessed Innocent XI condemned Quietism in 1687.
During these difficult times, God raised up saintly teachers on the spiritual life in France—–St. Margaret Mary Alacoque (1647-1690), St. John Eudes (1601-1680), and St. Louis de Montfort (1673-1716)—-who directed people to the love of God.
Divine Heart
At a very young age, Margaret felt herself continually persuaded to say these words: “O my God, I dedicate to you my purity and I make you a vow of perpetual chastity”. For four years Margaret was sick and not able to walk. But at fourteen she was instantly cured when, at her mother’s suggestion, she vowed herself to Our Lady.
In June, 1671, Margaret entered a convent of the Visitation order, and on December 27, 1673 she received her first revelations. Margaret heard Christ inviting her to take the place which St. John had occupied at the Last Supper. Christ told her that the love of His heart must be spread and manifested to mankind by means of her. “My divine Heart is so inflamed with love for mankind … that it can no longer contain within itself the flames of its burning charity and must spread them abroad by your means.”
Margaret described that the Sacred Heart was on fire and surrounded by a crown of thorns. The flames represented his love for mankind, and the thorns represented man’s sinfulness and ingratitude. It was as though Christ took her heart and out it within His own, returning it burning with divine love into her breast.
Reparation for sins
Margaret had three more visions over the next eighteen months in which Jesus instructed her to make reparation for sins by frequent Communion, especially on the first Friday of each month, and by making holy hour on Thursday night. In the final revelation, the Christ asked that the feast of the Sacred Heart be instituted.
Regarding the First Friday devotion Our Lord said, “The all-powerful love of my Heart will grant to all those who shall receive Communion on the First Friday of nine consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they shall not die under my displeasure, nor without receiving their Sacraments; my heart shall be their assured refuge at that last hour.”
Patient witness
Margaret suffered a great deal for her revelations. She was opposed by some of the nuns and the theologians who examined her did not believe in her.
By the providence of God, St. Claude de la Colombiere, a Jesuit priest, became the spiritual director of Margaret. He assured Margaret that her visions regarding the Sacred Heart were genuine.
The revelations of the Sacred Heart were eventually accepted by Margaret’s community. Before her death Margaret said, “I will not live much longer, for I no longer suffer.”

十七及十八世紀的歐洲教會,處於困難的局面;她要面對那些自以為是的政治領袖,他們擯棄固有信德的理念,卻吹噓以人性的理解尺度管治國民,而大批自詡為自由思想主義者,與既有的教會思想方向抗衡,甚至背道而馳。

教會本身亦出現如「楊森學派」和「寂靜主義」等異端。

「楊森學派」倡導原罪徹底破壞了人之本性,人已經沒有自由意志,基督救世只限於預定者,並非整個人類,而只有那些預定被救贖者,才可以領聖體。1653年,教宗諾森十世懲罰倡導的楊森主教,明言天主旨在救贖全人類,會賜予所有人得救的聖寵,領聖體可得小罪的赦免,且能抵抗大罪的誘惑。

「寂靜主義」推崇靜觀的神秘思想,認為一個人只沉浸於天主,無視其它一切事物,甚至對於誘惑,都可以不屑一顧。1687年,教宗真福諾森十一世譴責此異端。

幸好,此時的教會,在法國出現了三位聖者導師,他們極力誘導信眾,重蹈愛天主的正軌:聖瑪加利大.亞拉高(1647-1690)、聖若望.歐德(1601-1680),和聖類斯.蒙福(1673-1716) 。

耶穌聖心

瑪加利大幼小時已經被感召祈禱說:「噢,我主!我把我的貞潔付託於祢,我要向祢許下終身貞潔之願。」瑪加利大曾因生病而不良於行,時歷四載;十四歲那一年,遵母親建議,把自己奉獻給聖母,頑病霍然痊癒。

1671年六月,瑪加利大入「聖母往見修院」;1673年十二月二十七日,瑪加利大首獲神視,聽得耶穌邀請她坐在聖若望宗徒「最後晚餐」時的座位,同時要宣揚聖心對世人的愛:「我這聖心燃燒著愛人的烘烘烈火,不應自困囹圄,要藉妳得到廣傳。」

瑪加利大憶述燃燒著烈火的耶穌聖心,緊緊地被荊棘環綑著 —— 燃火代表愛人的熱火,但世人的罪衍和忘恩負義之心,傷透了耶穌的聖心,就如祂的聖心,緊緊地被荊棘環綑著一樣。耶穌好像把瑪加利大的心,放入自己的聖心,使聖女即時也感到那烘烈的愛火。

補贖罪過

之後,聖瑪加利大在十八個月內,再有三次神視。耶穌敦促她勤領聖體,以補贖諸罪,特別在每個月首星期五如此,在每星期四晚上守聖時敬禮,並要建立特敬「聖心瞻禮」。

耶穌親自應允,凡連續九個月首星期五為特敬耶穌聖心,而熱心領聖體的人:「將在臨終時得賞悔改的聖寵,得領受臨終聖事,更會得到聖心的鍾悅,在彌留時得聖心的庇蔭。」

含忍的見証

因著神視,瑪加利大忍受著無比的痛苦;她遭到修院修女們的反對和責難,神學家們也不相信她。後來,天主指派一位耶穌會會士、聖高隆汴神父,力陳聖女的神視是獨特和真確!

聖心神視最終得到確認。聖瑪加利大死前說:「我將不久於人世,因為我已不再受苦了。」

20130408 Faith kindled in North America 信德在北美燃點

The pioneers of faith labored zealously in North Americans during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and some of them shed their blood for the one true faith.
Junipero Serra
Blessed Junipero Serra (1713-1784) was a Franciscan priest. In 1749 he and Father Francisco Palou were appointed missionaries to America.
Father Serra reached Mexico City on Jan. 1, 1750. He served the native people with great zeal and devotion. He travelled a great deal, established nine California missions, and founded farms, rancherias, and schools.
Like St. Paul, Father Serra suffered many hardships during his missionary endeavors: hunger, stormy seas, a near shipwreck, threats, and violent attacks from enemies, but he always lived out his personal motto: “Always forward.”
It was estimated that Father Serra baptized more than 6,000 natives and confirmed more than 5,000. He also travelled about 4,300 miles on foot or by pack animal.
In mid-August 1784, Father Serra asked Father Palou to help him in dying. Father Palou rushed to Serra’s side, and for 10 days the two men prayed together. On Aug. 28 Father Junipero Serra died surrounded by his spiritual children—-the native people.
Jesuit Martyrs
Sts. Isaac Jogues and companions were North American martyrs. They are the secondary patrons of Canada (St. Joseph is the principle patron).
The eight Jesuit martyrs suffered between the year 1642 and 1649. St. Isaac Jogues and St. Rene Goupil were martyred by the Iroquois near Auriesville, New York. Sts. Jean de Brebeuf, Gabriel Lalement, Anthony Daniel, Charles Garnier and Noel Chabanel suffered in Huron Territory near Georgian Bay.
The life of the missionaries was very hard, and the work of evangelization was not easy. St. Gabriel Lalement wrote, “We have sometimes wondered whether we could hope for the conversion of this country without the shedding of blood.” Sts. John Brebeuf and St. Isaac Jogues prayed for the grace of martyrdom.
There was enmity between the native tribes—the Hurons and the Iroquois. The Iroquois attacked the Hurons and killed the missionaries with great cruelty. St. Rene Goupil was the first to suffer martyrdom.
St. Isaac Jogues was captured by the Iroquois and his hands were mutilated. After his escape a Calvinist knelt at his feet and kissed the mangled hands exclaiming, “Martyr of Jesus Christ!” Pope Urban VIII granted Isaac Jogues special permission to celebrate Mass with mutilated fingers. The Pope said, “It would be unjust that a martyr for Christ should not drink the blood of Christ”.
St. Isaac Jogues eventually suffered martyrdom at Ossernenon in 1646. Ten years later this place became the birthplace of St. Kateri Tekakwitha.
The other martyrs suffered in 1648 and 1649. They strived to serve the spiritual needs of the Hurons right to the end. A short time after their death, many native tribes (even their executioners) were converted.
Lily of the Mohawks
Kateri Tekakwitha (1656-1680) lost her parents and brother in a smallpox epidemic. Her face was permanently disfigured and her eyes left so pained by strong light that she would always shade her with a blanket.
Kateri was raised by an uncle. She resisted several marriages proposals and lived a chaste life. She was baptized by a Jesuit missionary on Easter Sunday, April 18, 1676.
Being the only Christian in her lodge, Kateri was persecuted by her own people for her faith. Eventually she fled to a Christian mission near Montreal.
A favorite question of Kateri was, “Who can tell me what is most pleasing to God that I may do it?” Kateri spent long hours praying before the Blessed Sacrament and practiced extreme mortifications.
With a strong love for Christ, her last words were, “Jesus, I love you.”

傳教先驅在十七、十八世紀登陸北美洲,以驚人的克苦耐勞精神傳揚真理,有些傳教士以大無畏的精神,捨生殉道。

朱尼佩洛.席拉

真福朱尼佩洛.席拉神父(1713-1784)是方濟會會士。1749年,他和方濟.博盧神父一起被派到北美洲傳教。

1750年一月一日,朱尼佩洛.席拉神父越洋抵達墨西哥城,隨即投入向原住民傳教的工作。他攀山涉嶺,足遍廣原,設立了九個加利福尼亞傳教區,築建農場和牧場,又修建學校。

像聖保祿宗徒一樣,席拉神父的傳教歷程,絕不容易。他捱饑抵餓,乘船逆上風暴,幾乎沉沒;生命受到威脅,曾被敵對的人襲擊,但他從未畏縮,只堅持他的格言:「常常前進!」

按照估計,朱尼佩洛.席拉神父徒步乘畜,跑過四千餘英里,替逾六千原住民付洗,施放堅振給五千人。

1784年八月中旬,方濟.博盧神父被急召到病重的席拉神父身旁,與他一起祈禱十天。八月二十八日,眾多皈化的原住民,圍著朱尼佩洛.席拉神父的病榻,目送他呼出人生最後的一口氣。

耶穌會殉道者

聖宜善(依撒格.饒格)神父及同伴,皆在北美洲殉教,被尊為加拿大主保(首席主保是聖若瑟)。

1642年至1649年間,八位耶穌會傳教士在北美地區致命。聖宜善和聖洛能.古比死在魯克族人手中;聖若望.貝巴、聖佳播.雷利蒙、聖安多尼.達諾、聖嘉祿.加尼亞及聖諾奧.沙貝納,則在喬治亞灣附近的胡隆族人地域蒙難。

傳教士生活十分艱辛,福傳絕非易事。聖雷利蒙寫道:「要使這裡的人皈化,看來非要流血致命不可!」聖貝巴與聖宜善同時祈求致命的聖寵。

胡隆族和魯克族是世仇宿敵,互相攻擊。在一次魯克族擊殺胡隆族的戰鬥中,聖古比神父首先殉道。

聖宜善被魯克族人俘虜,他的頭髮、鬍鬚和指甲連根拔去,食指斬斷。後來被荷蘭人救出。一名異教徒看到宜善神父的遭遇,跪在地上,親吻神父殘缺不全的雙手,喊著說:「耶穌基督的殉教者!」教宗伍朋八世特准宜善神父用殘缺的手主持彌撒。教宗認為「為基督流血的烈士,要是不能領受基督的聖血,簡直太不公平了!」

聖宜善不懼危險,稍後重返傳教區,終在1646年死在依魯克族人利斧之下。聖宜善致命之處 —— 奧息能隴 —— 是後來北美洲第一位土著聖人聖嘉德利出生地。

其他傳教士並未因同伴被殘害而退卻,仍以一貫的傳教熱忱,留守胡隆族服務。他們都在1648年至1649年內,為傳教使命全部捨生。但始之不久,很多當地原住民、包括曾仇殺傳教士的人,都全部皈依聖教。

莫霍克族的百合花

因天花疫症,使聖嘉德利.特嘉穎雅(1656-1680)自小喪失雙親和兄長,她自己亦因此面龐永久變形,雙目不能接觸強光。

嘉德利由叔父撫養成人。她守貞潔,亦推卻幾宗提親。1676年四月十八日、復活主日,嘉德利從耶穌會傳教士手中領受聖洗。

嘉德利因皈依聖教一直遭族人指罵和迫害,遂隻身逃到滿地可附近一處傳教處。

嘉德利為人樂道的一句話:「有誰可告訴我,最鍾悅天主的是什麼,好使我實踐?」

聖女喜長時間與耶穌聖體交談,又常做嚴竣的克苦,特別熱愛耶穌。她臨終的一句話:「耶穌,我愛祢。」

20130401 Holiness from the New World 新大陸的聖者

St. Turibius (1538-1606), St. Rose of Lima (1586-1617), and St. Martin de Porres (1570-1639) were the first saints of the New World.

St. Turibius

Turibius was a lay person who acted as judge of the ecclesiastical court. He was appointed as Archbishop of Lima while still a layman. He received all the orders and Episcopal consecration and arrived in Lima in 1581.

The conversion of Peru was hindered by the lay and clerical scandals of the time. Turibius at once undertook a visitation of his diocese and he was inflexible in regard to scandals among the clergy. After two years in office, Turibius convoked the Third Council of Lima and promulgated decrees on catechetcis, the sacraments, and church discipline.

Those in power opposed to the reform of Turibius, but his resolution and patience won out in the end. To those who opposed him, Turibius said, “Christ said, ‘I am truth’. He did not say, ‘I am custom’.”

During his twenty-five years as bishop, Turibius completed three pastoral visitations of his large diocese. He baptized and confirmed an estimated million people, and one of the confirmands was St. Rose of Lima. He was also shepherd of the Dominicans, St. Martin de Porres and St. John Massias.

St. Rose of Lima

            Rose of Lima was the first canonized saint in America. She took St. Catherine of Siena as model. Like Catherine she vowed virginity, became a Dominican tertiary, lived at home, and received mystical graces.

Rose practiced extraordinary penance and willingly accepted sufferings. For fifteen years she suffered persecution from her friends and others; she also suffered the trial of interior desolation and anguish of soul.

One day Rose had a vision. She saw Christ distributed sufferings, trials and tribulations to the faithful, and then he distributed graces in the same proportion as sufferings. Then Christ said, “Affliction is always accompanied by grace; grace is proportionate to suffering. The measure of my gifts is increased with the measure of trials. The Cross is the true and only road that leads souls to Heaven.”

During her last illness, Rose prayed, “Lord, increase my sufferings, and with them increase your love in my heart”.

St. Martin de Porres

            Martin de Porres was a humble lay brother with great charity for the poor. A fellow lay brother, Brother Fernando de Aragones, gave a description of the life of Martin in the Dominican priory: “Many were the offices to which the servant of God, Brother Martin de Porres, attended, being barber, surgeon, wardrobe-keeper and infirmaries. Each of these jobs was enough for any one man, but alone he filled them all with great liberality, promptness and carefulness, without being weighed down by any of them. It was most striking, and it made me realize that, in that he clung to God in his soul, all these things were effects of divine grace.”

Martin clung to God through prayers. At the canonization of Martin de Porres, Pope John XXIII said, “Whenever [Martin] would contemplate Christ’s terrible torture he would be reduced to tears. He had an exceptional love for the great Sacrament of the Eucharist and often spent long hours in prayer before the Blessed Sacrament. His desire was to receive the Sacrament in Communion as often as he could.” Martin also had great devotion to Our Lady and prayed many decades of the rosary daily.

Martin was a close friend of St. Rose of Lima and St. John Massias. Like Martin, John was also a Dominican lay brother with great love for the holy rosary and for the poor. John trained the priory donkey to make the rounds alone and receive food and clothing for the poor.

聖多利波(1538-1606)、聖羅撒(1586-1617)和聖瑪爾定(1570-1639),是新大陸首批被教會宣聖的人。

 

聖多利波

 

聖多利波由西班牙王任命為宗教法院﹕法官,後因殖民地秘魯里馬總主教出缺,多利波被選出掌該位,立即領受神品,被祝聖主教;他在1581年抵達里馬履任。

 

期時秘魯神職和教友腐敗,教務不振,多利波隨即親訪教區各處,力糾歪風。兩年後,多利波組織「里馬第三議會」,極力推行教理、聖事及紀律訓導。

 

聖多利波的改革方案,遭遇不少阻撓,但憑他不朽的決心與忍耐,終見成效。他駁斥反對的人謂:「基督說:『我是真理』,祂並沒說:『我是習俗』。」

 

里馬教區幅員雖然遼闊,多利波當總主教的二十五年,牧訪歷遍整個教區每一部份,達三次之多;他給約百萬人付洗及施放堅振,當中有聖女羅撒。聖多利波亦是聖瑪爾定和聖若望.瑪西亞的牧者。

 

聖羅撒

 

聖羅撒是美洲新大陸第一位聖人,她奉聖加大利納.栖亞那為楷模,仿效她發貞潔之願。羅撒加入道明會第三會,在俗修行,廣受天主特別聖寵。

 

聖女嚴行補贖,甘心接受苦痛。十五年來,她受旁人朋友欺凌譏笑,內心又忍受孤寂與神枯。

 

一日,聖女得一神視,只見基督一面分發苦痛、試探、磨難給信眾,另方面又賞給他們相稱的聖寵。基督同時說:「傷痛常有聖寵作伴,聖寵又稱衡於傷痛。我的恩寵與試探同增,而十字架是引領靈魂抵達天堂唯一的真確之路。」

 

聖羅撒病重中祈禱道:「主,請祢增加我的病苦,同時請也增加我心對祢的愛。」

 

聖瑪爾定

 

瑪爾定是道明會的輔理修士,對貧苦大眾有一顆廣博慈愛的心。同會的法蘭鄂勒崗輔理修士,形容瑪爾定在道明會修院內的生活:瑪爾定在修院兼任理髮師、外科醫師、護士、衣帽管事等,無論處於什麼崗位,他總比任何人都忠勤盡職、細緻入微,讓人意識到他的靈魂與主常在,他所有的工作,均顯出天主的超性恩寵。

 

藉著祈禱,瑪爾定得與主同行。在宣聖的儀式中,真福教宗若望廿三世說:「當念及基督苦難時,瑪爾定總不禁落淚。他特敬聖體,常長時間在聖體前祈禱,也渴望能勤領聖體。」聖人亦熱心恭敬聖母,每天誦唸多串玫瑰經。

 

聖瑪爾定是聖羅撒和聖若望.瑪西亞的好朋友。一如聖瑪爾定,聖若望.瑪西亞也是道明會的輔理修士,一樣熱愛聖母,殷恤貧苦。他把修院一頭驢子訓練好,使牠自己每天逐家逐戶門口乞討,人們亦習慣樂於把施捨放到牠背上,而若望.瑪西亞會把募捐得的,全部賙濟窮人。