20130218 Council translated into actions 推行大公會議法令

During the fifteen and sixteen centuries, many of the clergy were corrupted by money and other luxuries, and reform was needed in the Church. Unfortunately, some attempts to reform the Church led to the Protestant revolt. Beginning with Martin Luther, several groups rebelled and broke away from the Church.
The Council of Trent met the challenge of the Protestant revolt and brought about a renewal spirit of Catholicism.
Council of Trent
The Council of Trent was held from December 13, 1545 to December 4, 1563.
Regarding doctrinal issues, the Council declared that the Tradition of the Church together with the Bible is the source of Catholic belief. The books contained in the Latin Vulgate were the complete canonical list.
The Council taught that original sin did not destroy human freedom and man’s ability to cooperate with grace. Good works guided by faith are necessary for salvation.
The seven Sacraments were discussed at the Council. A Sacrament is an outward sign instituted by Christ to give grace. The Mass is true sacrifice, and Holy Communion is truly the living substance of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ. The Council defended the special spiritual powers of ordained priests and bishops.
To correct abuses, the Council required that bishops must live in their dioceses for the greater portion of each year. Bishops were no longer allowed to head more than one diocese at a time. Seminaries were to be set up for the training of future priests.
Pius V
Decisions on paper remain just that, until they are implemented into the life of the Church. Pope St. Pius V and other saints translated into action the spirit and letter of the Council of Trent.
Michael Ghislieri became a Dominican at fourteen, and held important positions in his order. He was elected pope on January 7, 1566, about two years after the Council. During his six years pontificate, Pius V published the Roman Catechism, revised the missal and breviary, and reformed the Roman court and capital.
Pius V was a man of deep piety and austerity. He spent long hours at night in prayer, fasted, and did penance. He had special devotion to the Passion of Christ.
To defend Christian Europe, Pius V rallied the Christian forces to break the Turkish advance at Lepanto, and organized the people to pray the Rosary. Due to the sudden shift in the wind the Christian fleet defeated the larger Turkish force on October 7, 1571. Pius V knew in some miraculous fashion of the victory on the very same day it occurred. In thanksgiving, he added “Help of Christians” to the Litany of Loreto. October 7 is now celebrated as the Feast of Our Lady of the Rosary.
Pius V died on May 1, 1572. He prayed on his deathbed, “Lord, increase my sufferings, but increase my patience too.”
Charles Borromeo
St. Charles Borromeo (1538-1584) was made cardinal at twenty-one. He handled the correspondence of his uncle, Pope Pius IV, and was instrumental in the reopening and the completion of the Council of Trent.
At twenty-six, St. Charles became the Archbishop of Milan. He held a series of provincial councils and diocesan synods to promulgate and to apply the decrees of the Council of Trent.
St. Charles established three seminaries for the training of clergy and required annual retreats for all clerics. He founded the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine with 2000 teachers to instruct children from Milan in over 740 schools. He also made regular visits to the parishes in his diocese.
In his personal life, St. Charles spent long hours in prayer, ate and slept little, and wore himself out in pastoral work. Though he accomplished so much, he never did anything in a hurry. He would never rush a liturgical prayer or ceremony.

十五、十六世紀,很多教會神職人員因金錢和奢華而變得腐敗,因而興起一片改革呼聲。改革聲浪中,卻不幸地掀起叛逆的浪潮,自馬丁路德開始,數批人士發起反對教會,與教會決裂。

教會方面,從1545年十二月十三日至1563年十二月四日,特別召開特利騰大公會議,除了遣責分裂外,更新了教會的教理精神

特利騰大公會議

說明教會的主體信仰,來自聖經和教會的聖傳;而以拉丁文翻譯成的聖經通俗本,成為教會法定的通用聖經。

教會明白指出,原罪並未使人類失去自主,反而仍可選擇與天主聖寵合作。信德內的善功,為靈魂得救是必需的。

大公會議亦討論過教會的七件聖事,認定每件聖事皆由耶穌基督建立,藉有形的外在標記,付予信眾聖寵。教會又指明,彌撒是基督真實的祭獻,基督真實臨在聖體聖血內。大公會議捍衛教會晉鐸和晉牧特有的神權,同時規定主教們要每年的大部份時間,都要駐留本身的牧區,他們也不能在同一時期內,牧轄超過一個教區。有意獻身鐸職的信眾,需要先通過修院的培訓。

聖碧岳五世

大公會議的通諭,不應止於文字上的指令,所以,教宗聖碧岳五世和幾個聖人,努力把特利騰大公會議的決議案,付諸實行。

彌格.祁連利十四歲入道明會修道,晉鐸後任修會要職。1566年一月七日獲選為教宗,取號碧岳五世。六年的教宗任內,碧岳五世成功出版「天主教要理全書」,又重編「彌撒經書」和「時辰誦禱」經文,他又改革了羅馬教廷和首都。

碧岳五世非常熱心和克苦,晚上作長時間祈禱,常齋戒和做補贖,特別恭敬基督的苦難。

歐洲聯軍抵禦土耳其的侵襲時,碧岳五世不忘祈禱,並令各地信友舉行各種公私敬禮,求上主護佑,且特別恭唸玫瑰經。

1571年十月七日,地中海突然改變的風向,歐洲聯軍得以擊潰強大的土耳其海軍。遠在羅馬的碧岳五世,似有神視得悉,對樞機們即時宣告勝利,促請大家感謝天主;他下詔將「進教之佑」列入聖母德敘禱文中。現在每年十月七日是「聖母玫瑰瞻禮」日。

1572年五月一日,教宗碧岳五世病逝,死前向天主祈求,說:「主,求祢增加我的苦痛,但請也增加我的忍耐力。」

聖嘉祿

聖嘉祿(1538-1584)年輕時已身居教廷要職。他的舅父、教宗碧岳四世決定重開特利騰大公會議,負責這項任務的正是聖嘉祿。

聖人二十六歲成為意大利米蘭總主教,牧職期間,多次召開教務會議,推廣和切實執行特利騰大公會議的決議案。

嘉祿為培育神職人員,建立了三座修院,並規定神職人員要每年舉行退省。他又把兩千名要理講解員組織「教理研究會」,在七百四十多所學校,教授米蘭兒童天主教要理。他亦定時巡視教區內的各堂區。

聖嘉祿常用很萇時間祈禱和工作,卻甚少休息,為牧職而勞損了自己的健康。他日常公務沉重繁忙,但從不匆忙草率,尤其對冗長的禮儀,一絲不苟,總是用心及耐心地完成。

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